History of the Civil Rights movement By Cristina Vignone
According to the ghetto model of black urban history, the presence of African Americans in the north following the Great Migration coincided with “the rise of largely segregated black housing and community life in the urban environment.” Sociologists like E. Franklin Frazier identified the high rate of “crime, divorce, and illegitimate birth rates” in addition to the shrinking of “African American urban social, cultural, and institutional affiliations” as a result of the black migration process. In the mid-nineteenth century, black Americans living in New York City became active participants in urban civil rights organizations like the Committee on Urban Conditions Among Negroes, the Committee for Improving Industrial Conditions of Negroes in New York and the National League for the Protection of Colored Women in New York. In 1910, these groups combined to form the National Urban League (NUL) with a white woman, Ruth Standish Baldwin, as President and a black man, George Edmund Haynes, as Executive Secretary.
From its inception Baldwin, Haynes and members of the NUL were concerned with educational, employment and housing inequality, and developed various programs to equalize opportunities for New York City’s black population. Guided by Haynes’ notion that “we should expect each individual to be treated on the basis of his worth and conduct rather than on his color,” the NUL established over a hundred affiliates across the nation’s urban centers.
In addition to “empower[ing] communities to help them become crime free, offer suitable housing, steady employment and social services,” the NUL continues to be “proactive” and remains dedicated to the civil rights’ notion that “empowerment, opportunity and ownership create and sustain a movement.” The following commemorative monograph looks back on the history of the NUL and the promise it continues to hold for racial equality in the United States.
The National Urban League 100 Years of Empowering Communitieshttp://www.human-spirit-initiative.org/blog2/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/NationalUrbanLeague_monograph.pdf
 Joe William Trotter, The Great Migration in Historical Perspective: New Dimensions of Race, Class, and Gender (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991), 1.
 Ibid, 9.
 Nancy Joan Weiss, The National Urban League, 1910-1940 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1974), 29.
 “Co-founders: Ruth Standish Baldwin and George Edmund Haynes 1950-1980,” The National Urban League—100 Years of Empowering Communities (Minneapolis, The Human Spirit Initiative: Ordinary People Doing Extraordinary Things and Atlanta, The Extra Mile – Points of Light Volunteer Pathway Points of Light Institute, 2011), 11.
 Ibid, 67-8.